Sunday, October 3, 2010

Islam and Judaism: the early years - Papers by Ben Abrahamson and Joseph Katz

"Islam and Judaism: the early years" a series of articles, using a historiographical approach, stating that Jews and Muslims were originally friends.

Papers by Ben Abrahamson and Joseph Katz
  • The Islamic Jewish Calendar. How the Pilgrimage of the 9th of Av became the Hajj of the 9th of Dhu'al-Hijjah. Researches the derivation and correspondence of the Islamic and Jewish Calendars; explaining how, among other things, the 9th of Av / Pilgrimage became the 9th of Dhu'al-Hijjah / Hajj; discusses the strictly lunar calendar and the use of the crescent symbol as the end result of the rejection of Hillel II's mathematical calendar.
  • Prayer Positions. Tracing the derivation of prayer positions from Torah, to Temple times, to Modern Practice. This paper discusses the various forms of bowing and prostration in use in the Mosque and Synagogue. The groundwork is laid for further research to discern the identity and customs of the Jews of Arabia and rabbinic customs that were shared by Muslims. It also opens the possibility that Islamic custom may have influenced medieval rabbinic custom. Of particular interest is the section "Repetition of the Shemonah Esrei" where the calculation of Rabbinic and Islamic Ra'akat's are shown to be the same.
  • The Persian conquest of Jerusalem in 614CE compared with Islamic conquest of 638CE. Its Messianic nature and the role of the Jewish Exilarch. Explores the conquests of Jerusalem in 614CE and 638CE within the context of previous attempts at Jewish restoration. Discusses reasons for a Persian-Jewish alliance and later a Judeo-Arab alliance. An account is given of Babylonian Jewish Exilarch Nechemiah ben Hushiel, his brother Shallum (Salmaan Farsi) and nephew Yakov (Kab Al-Ahbar) who played pivotal roles in these conquests. Proposes that the twelve men who went to Mecca to meet with the Prophet (pbuh) were Jewish refugees from Edessa, by way of Medina.
  • Yosef Dhu Nuwas, a Sadducean King with Sidelocks. This paper traces the history and fortunes of the hellenizing Jewish family of the Tobiads from their Persian roots, to their founding of a petty kingdom at ‘Iraq al-Amir, to the nabatean wars, to the Tubba kings of Himyar. It explores 3rd to 5th century Arabia as an extension of the Second Commonwealth, and a direct descendant of the Tobiad petty kingdom. It also covers the loss of a replica of the Ark of the Covenant adorned even today with the Tobiad/Himyar dove, now buried under a church in Axum, Ethiopia; and discusses the linguistic derivations of saracen, mushreqoon and Dhu Nuwas.
  • The Quraish as descendants of Onias IV. Explores the possibility that one of the ancestors of the Quraish was the High Priest Onias IV, that Islam was influenced by Ptolemy, and that the Ka'aba may be the "monument on the border of Egypt" mentioned in Isaiah 19 that was rebuilt along with the Temple at Heliopolis.
  • The Weeks of Daniel and the Jewish Mahdi. An exploration of the Jewish prophecies and expectations concerning the Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) as "Ish Hammudot", the man greatly valued, beloved, referred to in the book of Daniel. According to some Islamic, as well as Jewish tradition, the original meeting of "Maseeh" and "Madhi" was the meeting of the Jewish Exilarch Salmaan Farsi with the Prophet Muhammed (pbuh). The close relationship between the descendant of King David and the Prophet (pbuh) or his replacement (Caliph) was a prototype of events that would only reach their consummation at the end of days.
  • The True Meaning of Jihad. The conquest of Israel, Jerusalem and the Rebuilding of the Temple for the Jews. Research into the roots and context of Jihad as "Y-H Echad" as related to Sanctification of the Name, or Kiddush Hashem. A historical analysis of the derivation of Islam within the context of Mecca (home to a Ptolemaic-Sadducean Universal religion) and Medina (home to Jewish militancy, the last remnants of the Great Revolts).
  • Islamic Terms borrowed from Judaism A work in progress. It is intended to be a list of common "points of contact" between Islam and Judaism as evidenced by borrowed vocabulary. The list needs to be greatly expanded, especially referencing the work of Reinhart Dozy.